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Definition of Arthritis
Definition of Arthritis

Arthritis is closely related to the human joints. In general, there is swelling of more than one joint. The main symptoms that usually appear are pain and stiffness in the joints. These symptoms will continue to exist and the impact will get worse with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis is a disease that causes cartilage to break down. Cartilage is the hard and slippery tissue that covers the joints. Meanwhile about rheumatoid arthritis. Can be interpreted as a disease that involves the immune system and joints. Usually this immune system begins to attack the outermost layer of the joints.

Arthritis Symptoms

The symptoms felt by the sufferer will be in accordance with the type experienced. Here are the symptoms of each:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA)

Osteoarthritis affects the cartilage lining the joints, which can cause pain and difficulty moving. OA is commonly experienced by middle-aged people, especially in their late 40s or older. The loss of cartilage causes bones to rub against each other, deforming joints and forcing bones out of their normal positions.

OA often occurs in the joints of the hands, spine, knees, and hips, and is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Joints lose the flexibility of motion.
  • Increased pain and stiffness when not moving the joint for a while.
  • The joint appears slightly larger than usual.
  • There is a sound in the joint every time it moves.
  • Weakness and loss of muscle mass in the joints.

2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

People aged between 40 and 50 years generally have a higher risk of developing this disease. Usually, the outer covering joints will be the first to be affected. Then, the inflammation will spread to the surrounding joints. If a person has RA, they will experience changes in the shape of their joints.

If it gets worse, RA can cause problems in tissues and organs. This disease cannot be underestimated, because rheumatoid arthritis is what causes sufferers to not be able to carry out normal activities as usual. The following symptoms need immediate treatment:

  • A throbbing pain sensation on its own that is worse in the morning.
  • Joint stiffness that causes the fingers not to bend or make a fist.
  • Swelling, warmth, and redness on their own due to inflammation. Some sufferers experience the development of symptoms in the area around the joints.
  • Feeling constantly tired and lacking energy.
  • Experiencing increased body temperature and sweating.
  • Experience a decrease in appetite which leads to weight loss.

This condition can sometimes cause problems in other areas of the body, such as dry eyes and chest pain. Chest pain occurs when the heart or lungs are affected by the disease.

Read Now: Orthopedic Specialist to Treat Bone and Joint Problems

Causes of Arthritis

Arthritis can occur when the tissue in the cartilage becomes inflamed and this results in impaired joint function. Cartilage is a connective tissue that serves to protect the bones from rubbing against each other when they are moving. The causes of arthritis can vary depending on the type.


1. Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis involves the breakdown and tearing of joint cartilage, which is the hard, smooth coating on the ends of bones. This damage causes the bones to rub against each other directly, resulting in joint pain and limited movement. Wear and tear on these joints can occur over years and can be accelerated by joint injury or infection.

While the trigger factors for osteoarthritis are:

  • Joint injuries result from not having enough time to heal after an injury or surgery.
  • Secondary arthritis, is a condition that occurs as a result of being severely damaged by a previous or pre-existing condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout.
  • The risk of developing OA continues to increase with age.
  • Have a family history of the same condition.
  • Have excess weight. Obesity puts excessive stress on joints, especially the knees and hips
  • You are a woman.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by the body’s immune system attacking the lining of the joint capsule, which is a membrane that covers all parts of the joint. This layer, known as the synovial membrane, becomes inflamed and becomes swollen. If this process continues, the disease can damage the cartilage and bone in the joints.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition, which means it is caused by the immune system attacking healthy body tissues. However, it is not known what triggers it. However, here are some conditions that are suspected of being a triggering factor for RA:

  • Have a family history of the same disease.
  • You are a woman.
  • Active smoker.

Arthritis Diagnosis

The doctor will diagnose the type of arthritis by conducting a complete medical interview, a thorough physical examination, and appropriate supporting examinations, including:

1. X-ray

X-ray examination is useful for visualizing bones, such as showing cartilage loss, bone damage, and bone spur damage. X-rays can also be used to determine the progress of the disease.

2. Computerized Tomography or CT Scan

CT scans can be used to visualize the condition of the bone and surrounding soft tissue that cannot be seen using ordinary bone X-rays.

3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging optimizes radio waves that have a strong magnetic field. This will create a very detailed image. Even images such as tendons, cartilage, and ligaments will be more clearly seen.

4. Joint Fluid Analysis

Joint fluid analysis can be used to determine the level of inflammation in the joints and help doctors in concluding the type of arthritis experienced by the patient.

Arthritis Prevention

Arthritis is a disease that makes it difficult for the sufferer to move for a long period of time. This will automatically interfere with daily activities carried out. Instead of bothering to treat, you should take preventive steps with the following steps:

  • Regular and light exercise to maintain joint flexibility. A good exercise option for people with arthritis is swimming because it does not put pressure on the joints.
  • Avoid doing excessive and continuous activities, which involve the joints.
  • Eat foods rich in antioxidants to prevent and reduce joint inflammation.
  • Maintain a healthy diet and maintain an ideal body weight to reduce the risk of developing arthritis and reduce symptoms in people with it.

Arthritis Treatment

Arthritis is a disease that cannot be completely treated and cured. Treatment is done only aims to relieve the symptoms experienced, as well as improve joint function. Some of the treatment methods that doctors will use to treat arthritis, include:

  • Administration of drugs. In osteoarthritis, drugs that are often given include painkillers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, and corticosteroid drugs.
  • Operation action. When arthritis is severe enough, the doctor may recommend surgery, such as:
  • Arthroplasty (joint replacement), to replace a damaged joint with an artificial joint.
  • Arthrodesis (joining of joints), where the ends of the bones are joined together until they heal and become one.
  • Osteotomy, where the bones are cut and re-aligned.
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Orthopedic Specialist to Treat Bone
Orthopedic Specialist to Treat Bone and Joint Problems

Orthopedics is a medical field that focuses on diseases or conditions of your musculoskeletal system. The examination focuses on bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons, joints, and nerves. This field is handled by orthopedic specialists.

Come on, find out more about an examination with an orthopedic doctor and what can be treated.

What is an orthopedic doctor?

Orthopedic specialists are doctors who focus on problems with bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. Doctors with this specialty must be familiar with the entire musculoskeletal system, and understand the different types of joints and how they work.

The scope of orthopedics itself is very broad considering there are more than 200 bones arranged in the human body. Therefore, the focus of examination in orthopedics is further divided into sub-specialties that focus on more specific body parts.

For example, the hand orthopedic sub-specialist only examines conditions affecting the hand and wrist. While the spinal sub-specialist focuses on conditions affecting the spine and neck.

Later, the doctor will diagnose, provide treatment, and prevent orthopedic problems that may occur in the future.

Some of the conditions that an orthopedic doctor can treat include:

  • Joint or back pain
  • Sprained joints
  • Muscle tension
  • Injury to tendons or ligaments
  • Fracture
  • Arthritis
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Bone cancer

How is the examination with the orthopedic doctor going?

As with general examinations, the orthopedic doctor will first perform a physical examination when diagnosing your condition. The presence of lumps bulges in the spine, and spots or bruising can be an indication of musculoskeletal disease.

Doctors usually ask what kind of pain you feel, how severe and often the pain occurs, and whether it has started to interfere with your daily activities.

Then, the doctor will also ask for your medical history to determine if the pain is due to an underlying condition such as arthritis or diabetes.

Your doctor may also ask you to bend over, walk, climb stairs, and sit down to test your range of motion. From here, the doctor evaluates the movement ability, and flexibility, and narrows the estimate of potential conditions for a more accurate diagnosis.

The orthopedic doctor may tell you to move other parts of the body that are not painful. Some pain can sometimes be caused by problems in other parts of the body. For example, shoulder pain can be caused by problems in the spine or neck.

If the physical examination is not able to give a clear picture of your condition, the doctor will refer you for further tests, including x-rays or an MRI scan. This test can help your doctor find signs of swelling, fractures, or infection.

Later, when you have established a diagnosis, your doctor will discuss treatment options to treat your condition.

What procedures can an orthopedist perform?

In addition to diagnosing and giving medicines, orthopedic doctors can also provide other treatments such as rehabilitative therapy, surgery, or other alternatives.

Sometimes, treating musculoskeletal diseases with drugs alone is not enough. Therefore, doctors can recommend physical therapy such as manual therapy or mobilization therapy.

If non-surgical treatment is not helpful enough, the doctor can perform a surgical procedure. Generally, some of the types of surgery performed include:

  • Arthroscopy: a procedure to treat joint problems that involves inserting a camera device that can show images inside the joint.
  • Internal fixation: method to hold the broken pieces of bone in the proper position with metal plates, screws or pins.
  • Fusion: a “welding” process in which the bones are joined together with bone grafts and internal devices such as metal bars.
  • Joint replacement surgery: removal of a joint that has been partially or completely damaged.
  • Osteotomy: correction of bone deformity by cutting and positioning the bone in the right place.
  • Soft bone tissue repair: to repair torn tendons or ligaments.

When to see an orthopedic doctor?

Sometimes, you need to get a referral from a general practitioner first. Especially if you also have symptoms other than musculoskeletal problems.

An immediate examination by an orthopedic specialist is only needed if you:

  • Have chronic joint pain (more than 12 weeks),
  • The range of motion is limited
  • Difficulty walking or standing
  • Pain, stiffness, or discomfort begins to make daily activities difficult,
  • Experiencing progressive weakness or numbness in the arm or leg area, as well as
  • Have a sprain or soft tissue injury that doesn’t improve or gets worse after a few days.
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Orthopedic Surgery
Orthopedic Surgery: Benefits, Risks, Preparation, Until Recovery

When experiencing problems with the movement system, patients must immediately treat the condition so that its effects do not interfere with daily activities. Generally, treatment can include the administration of drugs and therapy. However, if this treatment does not work, the doctor may recommend the patient to undergo orthopedic surgery.

What is orthopedic surgery?

Orthopedic surgery is a medical procedure performed to treat conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. The scope of this surgery includes bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

The surgery is performed by orthopedic surgeons and traumatologists who are trained to assess and treat problems that arise in the musculoskeletal system. Not only surgery, but doctors also perform this surgery for purposes, such as:

  • Make a diagnosis of the injury or musculoskeletal disorder,
  • Provide treatment with drugs,
  • Provide rehabilitation with recommendations for exercise or physical therapy to restore the injured movement function, as well as
  • Provide information and treatment plans to prevent or slow the progression of the disease.

There are many types of orthopedic surgery, but here are the most common procedures performed.

  • Arthroscopy: an invasive procedure that uses a camera and special equipment to diagnose and treat problems within the joint.
  • Bone fusion: a “welding” procedure by joining bones together using bone grafts or internal devices such as metal rods. Usually done in the spine.
  • Joint replacement: a procedure to replace a joint that is affected by arthritic or severely damaged joints with an artificial joint called a prosthesis made of artificial metal and plastic components. Can be partially or completely replaced.
  • Internal fixation: a procedure to hold the broken pieces of bone in the correct position with metal plates, screws, or pins, while the bone is in the process of healing.
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction: orthopedic surgery to treat traumatic knee injuries.
  • Osteotomy: correction of abnormalities in the bone structure by cutting and repositioning the bone.
  • Soft tissue repair: a procedure to repair damaged soft tissue such as tendons or ligaments.

When should a patient undergo orthopedic surgery

When should a patient undergo orthopedic surgery?

Patients should undergo surgery if the pain does not improve even after several weeks of treatment. Patients may also need surgery if they have had a traumatic injury, such as an ACL tear.

In the case of an emergency, such as an open fracture that requires immediate surgery, the doctor will carry out a series of examinations which will immediately be followed by surgery.

Meanwhile, for cases of congenital abnormalities or abnormal limb development, such as clubfoot in infants, the doctor will install a casting and perform an examination for several months. If there is no progress, the doctor will consider surgery, depending on the patient’s condition.

In essence, not all injured conditions will be operated on immediately. The doctor’s decision depends on the symptoms and the results of tests such as X-ray scans, MRI scans, and CT scans. Therefore, make sure you do a series of examinations before getting orthopedic surgery.

Sometimes, surgery is also performed as a diagnostic procedure to determine the cause of the patient’s problems. Surgery is performed if the results of the examination with other procedures do not show clear results.

Is there a risk of complications arising from orthopedic surgery?

Like other medical procedures, orthopedic surgery is not free from various risks of complications. Here are some of the risks of complications.

Anesthetic effects (anesthesia)

This complication can occur if the patient has an allergy or sensitivity to one of the substances contained in the anesthetic. Usually, general anesthesia is riskier than local anesthesia.

The effects range from mild and temporary to serious. Its various effects include nausea, chills, difficulty breathing, or impaired cognitive function.


Infection is one of the surgical complications that are often a concern. Oftentimes, infections are easy to treat. But at other times, there are some patients who need additional surgical procedures and long-term treatment to treat the infection.

Blood clot

Blood clots can form in the veins after undergoing orthopedic surgery. To prevent blood clots after surgery, the doctor will apply compression, mobilization, or use blood thinners.

Preparation before undergoing orthopedic surgery

Before surgery, you may have to go through a series of examinations first. The doctor will tell you about the condition and what surgical procedures will be carried out and the risks.

During the examination, do not hesitate to ask your concerns about risk factors for complications after surgery.

Also tell if you have other medical conditions, have allergies to certain drugs, and if you are taking other drugs or supplements.

The type of anesthetic you choose and the length of time the surgery will take will depend on your condition and the type of surgery being performed.

How is recovery after orthopedic surgery?

Recovery after the surgery depends on the procedure you underwent as well as other factors such as age and adherence to the doctor’s advice.

Usually, recovery after orthopedic surgery involves rehabilitation that takes a long time. There are also patients who simply do therapy regularly to restore joint mobility and increase strength.

Pain is common after surgery. To overcome this, the doctor may give drugs that can reduce pain.

You need to know, that some drugs or intravenous fluids can make you urinate more often. If you still have trouble moving, ask your family or health care provider for help when you want to go to the bathroom.

After surgery, you may also feel weak. At these times, incidents such as falling or tripping are prone to occur. Make sure you are always surrounded by those closest to you to make it easier to get help.

Remember, the risk of postoperative complications can occur. Be aware of signs such as infection or blood clots. Call your doctor if you experience symptoms of any unusual complications such as fever or bleeding.

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