Exercises for plantar fasciitis include calf stretches, rolling stretches, and picking up marbles using your toes. Not only that, someread more
Most problems with bones and joints are characterized by physical features. However, there are some bone diseases that do not show changes in the external appearance so their presence must be known through special examinations. One of the examination procedures that can be done is a bone scan.
What is a bone scan?
To diagnose several types of bone disease, a medical method is usually used, namely a bone scan. To give a clear picture of the condition of the patient’s bones, the doctor will use a small amount of radioactive material.
Specifically, to see whether or not there is a problem with bone metabolism, a bone scan will be performed. This metabolism is the process of destroying and replacing healthy cells with damaged bone cells. Bone metabolism is the process by which damaged bone cells are destroyed and replaced with healthy cells.
When bones are damaged or broken, new bone is formed as a healing process. A bone scan is a right procedure to see if this activity is going well or not.
In addition, bone scans are also commonly used to see if cancer has spread to the bones from other parts of the body, such as the prostate or breast.
When does this procedure need to be done?
Doctors will usually recommend this procedure if a physical exam or other diagnostic methods can’t detect a problem with your bones. This procedure can also help identify unexplained bone pain.
Bone scans can show bone problems due to medical conditions such as:
- Avascular necrosis (death of bone tissue due to lack of blood supply),
- Bone cancer,
- Cancer that spreads to the bones from other parts of the body,
- Fibrous dysplasia (abnormal growth of scar tissue in healthy bone),
- Infection involving bone, and
- Paget’s disease (a disease that causes bones to become weak and deformed).
What are the risks to be aware of from this procedure?
The Bone scan is a safe procedure to do. What’s more, the radioactive material used in this procedure results in very little radiation exposure.
However, bone scans may not be recommended for those who are pregnant or breastfeeding. The reason, the developing fetus can be exposed to radiation exposure. In nursing mothers, radioactive substances can contaminate breast milk.
Allergic reactions to radiotracer are very rare and usually have only a mild effect. However, you should still tell your doctor or other staff if you have allergies.
Radiotracer injection may cause some pain and redness. Tell your doctor if you experience any unusual symptoms after having a bone scan.
How does the bone scan procedure take place?
The bone scan procedure does not require special preparation. You simply come to the hospital on the appointed day.
During the procedure, you will need to remove all jewelry and accessories that you are wearing. Sometimes, the doctor may give you a mild sedative to help you feel comfortable during the bone scan procedure.
Before starting the imaging, you will be injected with a radioactive substance first through your arm. This substance will circulate in your body through the bloodstream for the next two to four hours.
As the radioactive substance spreads throughout your body, the cells from the damaged bone will attract the radioactive substance so that it collects in these places.
The doctor will use a special camera to scan your bones. If any part of the bone is damaged, dark dots will appear in the image.
This procedure takes approximately one hour. If the results are not good, the doctor may repeat the injection and scan your bone again.read more
Orthopedics is a medical field that focuses on diseases or conditions of your musculoskeletal system. The examination focuses on bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons, joints, and nerves. This field is handled by orthopedic specialists.
Come on, find out more about an examination with an orthopedic doctor and what can be treated.
What is an orthopedic doctor?
Orthopedic specialists are doctors who focus on problems with bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. Doctors with this specialty must be familiar with the entire musculoskeletal system, and understand the different types of joints and how they work.
The scope of orthopedics itself is very broad considering there are more than 200 bones arranged in the human body. Therefore, the focus of examination in orthopedics is further divided into sub-specialties that focus on more specific body parts.
For example, the hand orthopedic sub-specialist only examines conditions affecting the hand and wrist. While the spinal sub-specialist focuses on conditions affecting the spine and neck.
Later, the doctor will diagnose, provide treatment, and prevent orthopedic problems that may occur in the future.
Some of the conditions that an orthopedic doctor can treat include:
- Joint or back pain
- Sprained joints
- Muscle tension
- Injury to tendons or ligaments
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Bone cancer
How is the examination with the orthopedic doctor going?
As with general examinations, the orthopedic doctor will first perform a physical examination when diagnosing your condition. The presence of lumps bulges in the spine, and spots or bruising can be an indication of musculoskeletal disease.
Doctors usually ask what kind of pain you feel, how severe and often the pain occurs, and whether it has started to interfere with your daily activities.
Then, the doctor will also ask for your medical history to determine if the pain is due to an underlying condition such as arthritis or diabetes.
Your doctor may also ask you to bend over, walk, climb stairs, and sit down to test your range of motion. From here, the doctor evaluates the movement ability, and flexibility, and narrows the estimate of potential conditions for a more accurate diagnosis.
The orthopedic doctor may tell you to move other parts of the body that are not painful. Some pain can sometimes be caused by problems in other parts of the body. For example, shoulder pain can be caused by problems in the spine or neck.
If the physical examination is not able to give a clear picture of your condition, the doctor will refer you for further tests, including x-rays or an MRI scan. This test can help your doctor find signs of swelling, fractures, or infection.
Later, when you have established a diagnosis, your doctor will discuss treatment options to treat your condition.
What procedures can an orthopedist perform?
In addition to diagnosing and giving medicines, orthopedic doctors can also provide other treatments such as rehabilitative therapy, surgery, or other alternatives.
Sometimes, treating musculoskeletal diseases with drugs alone is not enough. Therefore, doctors can recommend physical therapy such as manual therapy or mobilization therapy.
If non-surgical treatment is not helpful enough, the doctor can perform a surgical procedure. Generally, some of the types of surgery performed include:
- Arthroscopy: a procedure to treat joint problems that involves inserting a camera device that can show images inside the joint.
- Internal fixation: method to hold the broken pieces of bone in the proper position with metal plates, screws or pins.
- Fusion: a “welding” process in which the bones are joined together with bone grafts and internal devices such as metal bars.
- Joint replacement surgery: removal of a joint that has been partially or completely damaged.
- Osteotomy: correction of bone deformity by cutting and positioning the bone in the right place.
- Soft bone tissue repair: to repair torn tendons or ligaments.
When to see an orthopedic doctor?
Sometimes, you need to get a referral from a general practitioner first. Especially if you also have symptoms other than musculoskeletal problems.
An immediate examination by an orthopedic specialist is only needed if you:
- Have chronic joint pain (more than 12 weeks),
- The range of motion is limited
- Difficulty walking or standing
- Pain, stiffness, or discomfort begins to make daily activities difficult,
- Experiencing progressive weakness or numbness in the arm or leg area, as well as
- Have a sprain or soft tissue injury that doesn’t improve or gets worse after a few days.
Definition of musculoskeletal disorders
Musculoskeletal disorders are conditions that interfere with the function of joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, and tendons, as well as the spine. Your musculoskeletal system involves the structures that support your limbs, neck, and back.
Musculoskeletal disorders are often degenerative diseases, diseases that cause your body’s tissues to deteriorate over time.
This can cause pain and reduce your ability to move, which can prevent you from carrying out your usual daily activities.
Musculoskeletal disorders can affect any area of the body. The main parts include the neck, shoulders, wrists, back, hips, knees, and feet.
Symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders
Musculoskeletal disorders can cause inflammation in many different parts of the body. If you have a musculoskeletal disorder, you may feel pain all over your body.
You may feel your muscles heat up or twitch as if they are being pulled. Symptoms will vary from person to person, but common signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders include:
- Pain or aches
- Back pain
- Neck pain
- Sleep disturbances
- Poor posture
- Inflammation, swelling, redness
- Decreased range of motion
- Loss of function
- Numbness or stiffness
Muscle weakness or decreased grip strength.
If you have any questions about your symptoms or have any concerns, contact your doctor for more information.
Causes & risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders
Since the musculoskeletal covers, many parts of the body, the causes of this disorder vary widely. The exact cause of musculoskeletal disorders depends on:
- Age, the elderly tend to experience musculoskeletal pain from damaged body cells
- Type of work or profession
- The intensity inactivity
- Bad posture habits
- Too passive in doing physical activity
- Injury or trauma to a body part caused by a sudden movement
- A car or motorcycle accident
Who is at risk for musculoskeletal disorders?
Musculoskeletal disorders occur when you overuse or abuse a group of muscles or bones for a long time without resting.
There are several things that may increase your risk of developing this movement system disorder, including:
- Bend or crouch
- Lifting heavy objects
- Pushing or pulling heavy objects
- Overstretching muscles
- Trying to reach something that is far away
- The movement is repeated using the same limb over and over again
- Doing physical work for too long
- Drive heavy vehicles, travel long distances or drive on rough roads
Not only physical activity, but it also turns out that stress and too much thought can cause musculoskeletal disorders.
Certain health conditions
If you have an illness, certain health problems, or have recently been injured, you may have a muscle disorder.
Not only that, but pregnancy also increases your risk of experiencing it. In fact, when you feel tired and unfit, it is easier to experience movement disorders than when you are in a healthy and fit condition.
How to diagnose musculoskeletal disorders
To diagnose a musculoskeletal disorder, your doctor will perform a thorough physical examination and medical history to determine the exact cause of your pain.
Your doctor may test the muscles and joints for:
- Weakness or degeneration
- Any twitch that can indicate nerve damage
- Swelling or redness
In addition, depending on the specific disorder, the doctor may perform imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis. They may take X-rays to look at the bones, or blood tests for rheumatic diseases.
Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones
Diseases, disorders, or problems in the bones that interfere with their function in the movement system are included as musculoskeletal disorders. The following are the types of skeletal system disorders in the form of diseases, disorders, and bone health problems, including:
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when there is bone loss in the body. This causes the bones to become weak and break easily. In fact, in moderately broken cases, bones can be broken just because of a sneeze or a small impact.
Although osteoporosis is not caused by age, this condition is more prone to be experienced by women in old age. However, this does not mean that this condition cannot be experienced by men or young people.
Fractures can be distinguished based on their severity. At a level that is still relatively mild, the bone may only experience a fracture. However, to a severe enough degree, the bone may break into two or more parts.
Fractures can occur at the same time as other health problems, such as sprains or dislocation of bones and joints.
Abnormalities in the spine are also included in musculoskeletal disorders. The hallmark of this spinal deformity is a problem with the curvature or position.
Types of spinal deformities include kyphosis (backward curvature of the spine), lordosis (backward curvature of the spine), and scoliosis (spine curvature to form an S).
There are also other spinal problems, such as spondylolisthesis, which is a condition that occurs when the spine shifts downwards. This causes the displaced bone to press on the nerves underneath and cause pain or tenderness.
Then, spondylosis is a problem of spinal degeneration. This spinal disease is divided into three types, namely lumbar spondylosis (degeneration that attacks the lower spinal discs), cervical spondylosis (degeneration that attacks the spinal discs in the neck area), and thoracic spondylosis (degeneration that attacks the joints in the spine in the neck area Chest).
Osteopenia is a musculoskeletal disorder that attacks the bones characterized by reduced bone density. This causes the bones to become more brittle.
This condition occurs when the bone’s need for calcium is not met. If you have osteopenia, your risk for bone loss is higher.
Osteomalacia is a musculoskeletal disorder that occurs when bones become more flexible and cannot harden, so they are often bent and prone to fracture. This condition usually occurs because the body lacks vitamin D.
If the condition is experienced in infancy, osteomalacia can cause a stooped posture or crooked bones as an adult. In addition, osteomalacia can also cause elderly people to be prone to fractures.
Paget’s disease of bone
Paget’s disease of bone interferes with the recycling of new bone tissue when replacing old bone tissue.
Over time, this disease can cause bones to become brittle. Usually, Paget’s disease of the bones affects the pelvis, skull, spine, and leg bones.
This musculoskeletal problem is characterized by the increased bone density that occurs due to problems with bone reabsorption by cells in the body known as osteoclasts.
This condition causes bones to become brittle and break easily. In certain conditions, osteopetrosis occurs together with abnormalities in the bone skeleton.
Achondroplasia is a musculoskeletal problem that inhibits the growth of cartilage into complete bone. Problems that attack these bones can cause complications such as respiratory problems, obesity, and ear infections.
This condition is characterized by a stunted body or dwarfism, limited elbow movement, a head size that is larger than normal, and finger sizes that are smaller than normal.
This musculoskeletal disorder is hereditary and appears from birth. If a child is born with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) they may have bones that break easily, bones that are not formed properly, and various other bone diseases.
Osteomyelitis is an infection that attacks the bone through the bloodstream or spreads from the tissue close to the bone. However, this infection can also come from the bone itself as a result of being contaminated by bacteria during an injury.
Musculoskeletal disorders that attack the joints
Problems and diseases that attack the joints are also part of musculoskeletal or movement system disorders. Here are some types of movement system disorders that attack the joints:
Arthritis is a disease that causes inflammation of the joints. This disease is divided into several types, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout or gout, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylosis.
Bursitis is a musculoskeletal disorder that affects the joints, specifically the bursae, which are part of the joint in the form of a sac that stores lubricating fluid. According to the National Health Service, this condition can cause pain or tenderness in the joints.
Tendinitis is a joint problem that affects the tendons, which are the links between bones and muscles. When experiencing it, the tendon will experience severe swelling.
Usually, this condition occurs after you have suffered the same injury over and over again in an area such as your wrist or foot. One of the symptoms of this joint problem can be pain and tenderness in the joint area.
Tendon injuries usually occur because the tendon is damaged by overuse or as part of the aging process. Usually, people who do the same movement over and over again have the potential to experience it.
Actually, this musculoskeletal disorder is almost the same as a tendon injury, but tennis elbow usually occurs in the joint in the elbow area when you overuse it as a result of repeated movements of the wrist or arm.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
This disease occurs due to pressure on your wrist. This can cause pain to numbness in the hands and fingers. Carpal tunnel syndrome may occur when a joint in this area presses on the median nerve, causing pain.
Musculoskeletal disorders that attack the muscles
Considering that the musculoskeletal system includes the human muscular system, disorders of the movement system also include health problems, disorders, and various diseases of the muscles. Among others are:
Myalgia or muscle pain is a condition that occurs when the muscles are used too often to perform repetitive movements. Usually, this condition is experienced after you do strenuous work that requires you to do the same movement over and over again or intense exercise with the same movement.
Similar to Myalgia, fibromyalgia is muscle pain that appears all over the body at the same time. Usually, this condition is also accompanied by excessive tiredness, sleep disturbances, or a chaotic mood.
Muscle injuries, also known as sprains, are also one of the musculoskeletal disorders that interfere with the human muscular system.
Sprains can be distinguished by their location. For example, if the injury affects a tendon, it is called a muscle strain. Meanwhile, a sprain that attacks the ligaments is called a muscle sprain.
A Muscular dystrophy is a group of muscle diseases that cause gradual muscle weakness. This condition is caused by an abnormal gene that interferes with the production of proteins needed by healthy muscles.
This condition cannot be cured, but at least treatment and therapy can be done to overcome or relieve the existing symptoms.
This disease of the muscles is characterized by muscle weakness that makes it unusable. Muscle atrophy can be caused by too often muscle is not used, as in stroke patients. Then, malnutrition, use of drugs, to certain diseases can also be the cause.
Cramps and muscle spasms
Muscle cramps and spasms are almost the same muscle health problems. Muscle cramps and muscle spasms are conditions that occur when muscles contract suddenly and out of control. This condition can appear while you are sleeping at night so that you are awake.
If you experience it, the contracted muscle can’t be used or moved for a while until the condition improves on its own.
Medication & treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
Depending on the cause and severity of the pain, there are various treatments available for musculoskeletal disorders.
For pain that is classified as mild or appears occasionally, you can use over-the-counter pain relievers at pharmacies. For example, ibuprofen or paracetamol.
Meanwhile, drugs such as anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to treat inflammation and pain. For more severe pain, you may need stronger pain relievers, which will require a prescription from your doctor.
For work-related pain, physical therapy can help you avoid further damage, as well as control the pain. Manual therapy, or mobilization, may be used to treat problems with spinal alignment.
Other treatments may include:
- Relaxation techniques
- Injections with anesthetic or anti-inflammatory drugs
- Muscle strengthening and stretching exercises
- Chiropractic care
- Massage therapy
How to control musculoskeletal disorders?
You can control musculoskeletal disorders by managing your risk factors and preventing injury. Here are some tips that can help:
- Keep frequently used items close to you and easy to reach to avoid overstretching your arms
- Use assistive machines as much as possible, such as using a trolley when you want to shop in large quantities
- Take short breaks during activities that make you perform repetitive motions over the long term
- Use a soft chair when you have to sit for long periods of time
- Arrange objects on the table effectively when they want to work
- Use a headset or earphones when you want to communicate for a long time via mobile phones
- Limit lifting heavy weights
When experiencing problems with the movement system, patients must immediately treat the condition so that its effects do not interfere with daily activities. Generally, treatment can include the administration of drugs and therapy. However, if this treatment does not work, the doctor may recommend the patient to undergo orthopedic surgery.
What is orthopedic surgery?
Orthopedic surgery is a medical procedure performed to treat conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. The scope of this surgery includes bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and nerves.
The surgery is performed by orthopedic surgeons and traumatologists who are trained to assess and treat problems that arise in the musculoskeletal system. Not only surgery, but doctors also perform this surgery for purposes, such as:
- Make a diagnosis of the injury or musculoskeletal disorder,
- Provide treatment with drugs,
- Provide rehabilitation with recommendations for exercise or physical therapy to restore the injured movement function, as well as
- Provide information and treatment plans to prevent or slow the progression of the disease.
There are many types of orthopedic surgery, but here are the most common procedures performed.
- Arthroscopy: an invasive procedure that uses a camera and special equipment to diagnose and treat problems within the joint.
- Bone fusion: a “welding” procedure by joining bones together using bone grafts or internal devices such as metal rods. Usually done in the spine.
- Joint replacement: a procedure to replace a joint that is affected by arthritic or severely damaged joints with an artificial joint called a prosthesis made of artificial metal and plastic components. Can be partially or completely replaced.
- Internal fixation: a procedure to hold the broken pieces of bone in the correct position with metal plates, screws, or pins, while the bone is in the process of healing.
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction: orthopedic surgery to treat traumatic knee injuries.
- Osteotomy: correction of abnormalities in the bone structure by cutting and repositioning the bone.
- Soft tissue repair: a procedure to repair damaged soft tissue such as tendons or ligaments.
When should a patient undergo orthopedic surgery?
Patients should undergo surgery if the pain does not improve even after several weeks of treatment. Patients may also need surgery if they have had a traumatic injury, such as an ACL tear.
In the case of an emergency, such as an open fracture that requires immediate surgery, the doctor will carry out a series of examinations which will immediately be followed by surgery.
Meanwhile, for cases of congenital abnormalities or abnormal limb development, such as clubfoot in infants, the doctor will install a casting and perform an examination for several months. If there is no progress, the doctor will consider surgery, depending on the patient’s condition.
In essence, not all injured conditions will be operated on immediately. The doctor’s decision depends on the symptoms and the results of tests such as X-ray scans, MRI scans, and CT scans. Therefore, make sure you do a series of examinations before getting orthopedic surgery.
Sometimes, surgery is also performed as a diagnostic procedure to determine the cause of the patient’s problems. Surgery is performed if the results of the examination with other procedures do not show clear results.
Is there a risk of complications arising from orthopedic surgery?
Like other medical procedures, orthopedic surgery is not free from various risks of complications. Here are some of the risks of complications.
Anesthetic effects (anesthesia)
This complication can occur if the patient has an allergy or sensitivity to one of the substances contained in the anesthetic. Usually, general anesthesia is riskier than local anesthesia.
The effects range from mild and temporary to serious. Its various effects include nausea, chills, difficulty breathing, or impaired cognitive function.
Infection is one of the surgical complications that are often a concern. Oftentimes, infections are easy to treat. But at other times, there are some patients who need additional surgical procedures and long-term treatment to treat the infection.
Blood clots can form in the veins after undergoing orthopedic surgery. To prevent blood clots after surgery, the doctor will apply compression, mobilization, or use blood thinners.
Preparation before undergoing orthopedic surgery
Before surgery, you may have to go through a series of examinations first. The doctor will tell you about the condition and what surgical procedures will be carried out and the risks.
During the examination, do not hesitate to ask your concerns about risk factors for complications after surgery.
Also tell if you have other medical conditions, have allergies to certain drugs, and if you are taking other drugs or supplements.
The type of anesthetic you choose and the length of time the surgery will take will depend on your condition and the type of surgery being performed.
How is recovery after orthopedic surgery?
Recovery after the surgery depends on the procedure you underwent as well as other factors such as age and adherence to the doctor’s advice.
Usually, recovery after orthopedic surgery involves rehabilitation that takes a long time. There are also patients who simply do therapy regularly to restore joint mobility and increase strength.
Pain is common after surgery. To overcome this, the doctor may give drugs that can reduce pain.
You need to know, that some drugs or intravenous fluids can make you urinate more often. If you still have trouble moving, ask your family or health care provider for help when you want to go to the bathroom.
After surgery, you may also feel weak. At these times, incidents such as falling or tripping are prone to occur. Make sure you are always surrounded by those closest to you to make it easier to get help.
Remember, the risk of postoperative complications can occur. Be aware of signs such as infection or blood clots. Call your doctor if you experience symptoms of any unusual complications such as fever or bleeding.read more